Archive for the ‘Scientific Journal’ Category

UGA Skidaway Institute research paper selected for Research Spotlight

February 3, 2017

 

Skidaway Institute's Aron Stubbins

Skidaway Institute’s Aron Stubbins

A research paper by University of Georgia Skidaway Institute of Oceanography scientist Aron Stubbins has been selected by the Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences to be featured as a Research Spotlight on the journal’s website and in the magazine Eos. Research Spotlights summarize the the best accepted articles for the Earth and space science community.

Stubbins’s paper, titled “Low photolability of yedoma permafrost dissolved organic carbon,” followed-up on earlier research into a massive store of carbon—relics of long-dead plants and other living things—preserved within ancient Arctic permafrost. That research showed the long-frozen permafrost is thawing, and the organic material it has preserved for tens of thousands of years is now entering the environment as dissolved organic matter in streams and rivers. Bacteria are converting the organic material into carbon dioxide, which is being released into the atmosphere.

A bank of permafrost thaws near the Kolyma River in Siberia

A bank of permafrost thaws near the Kolyma River in Siberia

The current paper examines the effect of sunlight on the dissolved carbon compounds. The researchers discovered that sunlight changes the chemistry of the permafrost carbon, however sunlight alone does not convert the permafrost carbon to carbon dioxide. The researchers concluded the decomposition of organic materials via bacteria is mostly likely the key process for converting permafrost carbon within rivers into carbon dioxide.

The research team includes co-lead author Robert Spencer of Florida State University; co-authors Leanne Powers and Thais Bittar from UGA Skidaway Institute; Paul Mann from Northumbria University; Thorsten Dittmar from Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg; Cameron McIntyre from the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre; Timothy Eglinton from ETH Zurich; and Nikita Zimov from the Russian Academy of Science.  While climatologists are carefully watching carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, another group of scientists is exploring a massive storehouse of carbon that has the potential to significantly affect the climate change picture.

 

Molecular-level relationships key to deciphering ocean carbon

March 9, 2016

Athens, Ga. – From beach shallows to the ocean depths, vast numbers of chemical compounds work together to reduce and store atmospheric carbon in the world’s oceans.

 In the past, studying the connections between ocean-borne compounds and microbes has been impractical because of the sheer complexity of each. Three University of Georgia faculty members—along with an international team of scientists—bring to the forefront technological developments that are providing scientists with the analytical tools needed to understand these molecular-level relationships.

 Their perspective article appears March 7 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. It focuses on dissolved organic matter, or DOM, in the world’s oceans as a central carbon reservoir in the current and future global carbon cycle.

Skidaway Institute's Aron Stubbins

Skidaway Institute’s Aron Stubbins

 “Dissolved organic carbon is an amazing and confounding molecular soup,” said Aron Stubbins, co-author and associate professor of marine sciences at UGA housed at the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography in Savannah. “It sits at the center of the ocean carbon cycle, directing the energy flow from the tiny plants of the sea, phytoplankton, to ocean bacteria. Though around a quarter of all the sunlight trapped by plants each year passes through dissolved organic carbon, we know very little about the chemistry of the molecules or the biology of the bacterial players involved.”

 The carbon the microbes process is stored in seawater in the form of tens of thousands of different dissolved organic compounds.

 Researchers thought they had a handle on how some aspects of the process works, but “a number of new studies have now fundamentally changed our understanding of the ocean carbon cycle,” said the paper’s lead author Mary Ann Moran, Distinguished Research Professor at UGA.

 In the context of methodological and technological innovations, the researchers examine several questions that illustrate how new tools—particularly innovations in analytical chemistry, microbiology and informatics—are transforming the field.

 From how different major elements have cycles linked though marine dissolved organic matter to how and why refractory organic matter persists for thousands of years in the deep ocean to the number of metabolic pathways necessary for microbial transformation, the article infers a scale of enhanced and expanded understanding of complex processes that was previously impractical.

 The perspective article, Deciphering Ocean Carbon in a Changing World,” was shaped in discussions at a 2014 workshop supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and Microsoft Research Corporation. Moran’s research has been supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation’s Marine Microbiology Initiative.

 Co-authors on the paper include UGA’s Patricia Medeiros, assistant professor in the department of marine sciences. Others involved are with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute; the Scripps Institute of Oceanography and the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego; University of Tennessee, Knoxville; Oregon State University; Columbia University; The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; the University of Washington; University of Oldenburg, Germany; Sorbonne Universités; and the University of Chicago.

 Writer: Alan Flurry, 706-542-3331, aflurry@uga.edu

Contacts: Mary Ann Moran, 706-542-6481, mmoran@uga.edu; Patricia Medeiros, 706-542-6744, medeiros@uga.edu; Aron Stubbins, 912-598-2320, aron.stubbins@skio.uga.edu

 

 

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This release is online at http://news.uga.edu/releases/article/molecular-level-relationships-ocean-carbon/.

Climate change likely to increase black carbon input to the Arctic Ocean

November 30, 2015

University of Georgia Skidaway Institute of Oceanography scientist Aron Stubbins led a team of researchers to determine the levels of black carbon in Arctic rivers and found that the input of black carbon to the Arctic Ocean is likely to increase with global warming. The results of their study were recently published in the journal Frontiers in Earth Science.

Black carbon, or biochar, is formed when vegetation and other organic matter burns. Today black carbon is a massive store of carbon in global soils, where it is thought to be very stable — so stable, that researchers have previously suggested that adding black carbon to soils might be a good way to lock away carbon dioxide and reduce climate change. This new research reveals that the black carbon stored in Arctic soils is being exported to the oceans.

Arctic rivers are the major way black carbon is transported to the ocean.

Arctic rivers are the major way black carbon is transported to the ocean.

The Arctic is warming faster than other regions of the planet due to climate change. The scientists report that, as the planet warms, the amount of black carbon transported to the Arctic Ocean will likely increase. Once dissolved in the ocean and exposed to sunlight, black carbon may be rapidly converted back to the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.

In ongoing work at UGA and partner universities, Stubbins and his colleagues are trying to determine just how much black carbon will be exported to the Arctic Ocean as the Arctic continues to warm, and once it reaches the oceans, what percentage will reach the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.

The article is titled “Utilizing Colored Dissolved Organic Matter to Derive Dissolved Black Carbon Export by Arctic Rivers.” In addition to Stubbins, the co-authors include Robert Spencer from Florida State University; Jutta Niggemann and Thorsten Dittmar from the University of Oldenburg, Germany; Paul Mann from Northumbria University; Max R. Holmes from Woods Hole Research Center; and James McClelland from University of Texas Marine Science Institute.

The entire article can be viewed online at: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/feart.2015.00063/abstract

Stubbins has a website detailing this and other work on black carbon at:

http://www.skio.usg.edu/?p=research/chem/biogeochem/blkcarbon

Skidaway scientist’s study front-cover news

November 2, 2015

Aron Stubbins’ recent work on deep-ocean hydrothermal vents (earlier post) is the cover story for this month’s Nature Geoscience. Wayi to go, Aron!

Aron Cover

Skidaway Institute professor nominated for award

September 19, 2013

Marc Frischer

Marc Frischer

A paper published by University of Georgia Skidaway Institute of Oceanography professor Marc Frischer has been nominated for the James LaBounty Award as the best paper published during the past year in the scientific journal, Lake and Reservoir Management. Published by the North American Lake Management Society, the journal features peer-reviewed scientific papers targeting a largely technical audience of academics and lake managers. 

 The article, “Accuracy and reliability of Dreissena spp. larvae detection by cross-polarized light microscopy, imaging flow cytometry, and polymerase chain reaction assays” described an experiment to assess the reliability of three different methods for detecting zebra and quagga mussel larvae.

 Native to the lakes of southern Russia, zebra and quagga mussels have become a troublesome invasive species in North America. They disrupt ecosystems, and damage harbors and waterways, ships and boats, and water treatment and power plants. The goal of the study was to provide quantitative data useful for managers struggling to contain the current spread of these species in the western U.S.

 The manuscript was co-authored by Kevin Kelly from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Environmental Applications and Research Group, and Sandra Nierzwicki-Bauer from the Darrin Fresh Water Institute and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The study was funded by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Servce.

An abstract of the article is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07438141.2012.731027.

 According to the journal editor, Ken Wagner, the nomination means the editorial board felt that the paper was one of the more important contributions to Lake and Reservoir Management this past year.

 The final award will be presented at the annual symposium of the North American Lake Management Society in San Diego in October.

 For more information on the ongoing invasion and management efforts, see http://www.musselmonitoring.com.