Posts Tagged ‘Environment’

UGA Skidaway Institute’s Jay Brandes interviewed on public radio

January 19, 2017
Dr. Jay Brandes

Dr. Jay Brandes

UGA Skidaway Institute’s Jay Brandes was a featured interview guest on Georgia Public Broadcasting this week, talking about his work with microplastics in the marine environment.

http://www.gpb.org/blogs/community/2017/01/17/community-conversations-skidaway-scientist-on-mission-measure-ocean?utm_source=eGaMorning&utm_campaign=b51e5a8395-1_18_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_54a77f93dd-b51e5a8395-86742941

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UGA Skidaway Institute’s Alexander honored by coastal environmental group

January 5, 2017

University of Georgia Skidaway Institute of Oceanography Interim Executive Director Clark Alexander has been honored by the coastal environmental group One Hundred Miles as one of the group’s One Hundred Miles 100. The list is the first recognition of its kind to honor 100 individuals and organizations for their efforts to support the health, vitality and future of Georgia’s 100-mile coastline. Alexander was selected within the Researchers and Innovators category.

Alexander, a coastal geologist, was cited for his research efforts, which he began on the Georgia coast in 1989 when he first joined UGA Skidaway Institute. He was also cited by the environmental group for helping to advance the work of institutions across the coast. Alexander served on the Sapelo Island National Estuarine Research Reserve Advisory Board, the Gray’s Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council, and the Georgia Coastal Marshlands and Shore Protection Committees.clark-alexander-10-w

“Day in and day out, Clark advances our understanding of critical issues facing Georgia’s coast, including barrier island erosion patterns and the effects of climate change on marsh habitats,” his citation reads.

“Georgia’s coast is extremely fortunate to be under the stewardship of these exceptional leaders, conservationists and individuals who recognize its incomparable character and beauty and the essential role it plays in the well-being of our state,” said Catherine Ridley, vice president of education and communications at One Hundred Miles.

Alexander and the other honorees will be recognized with a reception immediately following the One Hundred Miles’ Coastal Conservation in Action: Choosing to Lead Conference on Saturday, Jan. 7, on Jekyll Island.

A full list of honorees is available at www.OneHundredMiles.org/OHM100.

Skidaway Institute Arctic carbon research gets additional exposure

January 27, 2016

The Website Environmental Monitor published a good article on some of the work Skidaway Institute scientist Aron Stubbins has been conducting on carbon in black carbon in the Arctic. OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

http://www.fondriest.com/news/arctic-ocean-biochar-could-increase-with-global-warming.htm

Jay Brandes interviewed on GPB

January 14, 2016

Skidaway Institute professor Jay Brandes was interviewed on Georgia Public Broadcasting regarding the recent move to ban microbeads and his upcoming project on microplastic pollution on the Georgia coast.

http://www.gpb.org/news/2016/01/13/microbeads-banned-plastic-remains-threat-oceans

UGA study finds high marine debris, need for standardized reporting along Georgia coast

February 3, 2015

Skidaway Island, Ga. – University of Georgia researchers are hoping to find a consistent way to record the marine debris—particularly pieces of plastic—crowding Georgia’s beaches as part of an effort to find a solution for the growing problem.

Marine debris has been washing up on Georgia beaches and uninhabited islands for years. Combatting the issue starts with figuring out how big it is, and a new two-part study from the UGA Skidaway Institute of Oceanography and Marine Extension published online in the Marine Pollution Bulletin finds that marine debris reporting can improve if it becomes standardized.

The problem right now is this: A volunteer group goes out and records the weight or volume of the marine debris collected. However, volunteers don’t often record the specific square feet measured or the contents of the debris. Due to a lack of report standardization, researchers often can’t compare the marine debris, especially plastic fragments, reported by different groups.

A sample of marine debris collected along the Georgia coast sits on a table at the UGA Skidaway Institute of Oceanography.

A sample of marine debris collected along the Georgia coast sits on a table at the UGA Skidaway Institute of Oceanography.

“We’ve seen plastic usage go up dramatically,” said study co-author Dodie Sanders, a marine educator and outreach coordinator for UGA Marine Extension, a unit of the Office of Public Service and Outreach. “It’s an important 21st century global issue. We need to learn more to better understand the issues of marine debris.”

The study’s lead author Richard F. Lee, professor emeritus with the UGA Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, agrees.

“Plastic debris is created on land and then it goes into rivers, flows into the ocean and washes up on land,” he said. “We’ve found that plastic debris ends up not only on populated beaches, but on inaccessible islands as well. We’ve found plastic everywhere on the coast.”

The first part of the study gathered debris from 20 sites along Georgia’s coast, including Tybee, Cumberland and Ossabaw islands. The debris was reported from volunteer organizations like Clean Coast, which hold monthly beach and marsh cleanups in Georgia.

Participants in a July 2014 teacher's workshop focusing on marine debris sift through the sands of Tybee Island in search of microplastic particles.

Participants in a July 2014 teacher’s workshop focusing on marine debris sift through the sands of Tybee Island in search of microplastic particles.

“The volunteer groups reported the weight of the debris, though we didn’t know the exact amount of plastic,” Lee said. “Based off the volunteer information we received, we did a follow-up study to more precisely measure the marine debris in a fixed location and period of time.”

The total collected debris ranged from 180 to 1,000 kilograms. The levels of plastic debris differed at each site over the course of the study, though plastic was consistently among the mix. Found plastic included plastic bottles, wrappers, food utensils and fragments of fishing gear.

Sanders spearheaded the second part of the study, where she and students collected plastic debris from Skidaway and Wassaw islands over a period of two years.

“While Dr. Lee did data analysis, I did some of the field work,” Sanders said. “We picked the two islands in the second part of the study because they were accessible sites where Marine Extension often takes students for marine education.”

For the fieldwork, Sanders and students visited the islands each month. They took inventory of what kinds of plastics were on specific areas of the coast.

“On about a monthly basis, I would take students to learn about debris and tally all the items on the islands,” Sanders said. “We took areas of 200 meters by 40 meters and recorded the items found. We also used GPS units to mark what areas we had done.”

The students, many of them in middle and high school, came from all over Georgia to assist. As part of Marine Extension, Sanders regularly teaches visiting students about marine life. When students volunteered to clean up, she tried to emphasize the issues surrounding debris.

“The bulk of the plastic comes from land,” Sanders said. “When people think of marine debris, they think of the ocean. I try to emphasize watershed concepts—what happens upstream ultimately gets downstream.”

“It can take years for plastic to degrade,” Lee said, adding, “80 percent of the plastic found at Wassaw turned out to be fragments. The fragments then spread and can have a number of environmental effects.”

Sanders says that since plastic debris is everywhere on the coast, it has to be addressed and reported efficiently to reduce its effects.

“There are proactive and reactive approaches to the issues of marine debris, and both are important,” she said. “We’ve been reactive so far by picking up debris. The proactive approach is our role in educating the public and researching the negative impacts of marine debris.”

The study was supported by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources Coastal Incentive Grant, NOAA Southeast Atlantic Marine Debris Initiative and the NOAA Marine Debris Program.

The full article on “The amount and accumulation rate of plastic debris on marshes and beaches on the Georgia coast” is available at www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X14008200#.

 

Skidaway Institute scientist shares Gulf oil spill research grant

December 17, 2014

University of Georgia Skidaway Institute of Oceanography scientist Catherine Edwards is part of a research team that has received an $18.8 million grant to continue studies of natural oil seeps and track the impacts of the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

Known as ECOGIG-2 or “Ecosystem Impacts of Oil and Gas Inputs to the Gulf,” the project is a collaborative, multi-institutional effort involving biological, chemical, geological and chemical oceanographers led by the University of Georgia’s Samantha Joye. The research team has worked in the Gulf since the weeks following the 2010 Macondo well blowout.

The three-year, $18.8 million ECOGIG-2 program was funded by the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative, or GoMRI.

“Our goal is to better understand the processes that have affected the oil spill since 2010,” Edwards said. “How the droplets were dispersed? Where the oil went? How it was taken up by small microbes and also the effects on animals further up the food chain?”

Skidaway Institute scientist Catherine Edwards adjusts a glider’s buoyancy with graduate students Sungjin Cho and Dongsik Chan.

Skidaway Institute scientist Catherine Edwards adjusts a glider’s buoyancy with graduate students Sungjin Cho and Dongsik Chan.

Edwards’ role in the project is to use autonomous underwater vehicles, also called “gliders,” to collect data on conditions around the spill site. Equipped with sensors to measure characteristics such as depth, water temperature, salinity and density, the gliders can cruise the submarine environment for weeks at a time, collecting data and transmitting it back to a ship or a shore station.

“We want to understand the ocean currents—how they change over time and how they change in depth,” Edwards said. “Surface measurements give us a two-dimensional picture of the ocean. Glider data in the vertical provides more valuable information for more fully understanding ocean currents and how they arise.”

The gliders will operate both in conjunction with shipboard instruments and also independently. One advantage of using the gliders is they can operate during storms and rough weather, when it may not be possible to use ships. Edwards said shipboard work doesn’t always give a full picture of ocean dynamics simply by the fact that they can only go out when the weather is reasonably clear.

When working in conjunction with research ships, the gliders can provide additional observations, significantly improving the quality of the data set. The gliders also report dissolved oxygen concentrations and optical measurements of chlorophyll and organic matter, and may also be used as a test vehicle for new instruments in development.

Edwards will use “GENIoS,” a new software package, to help navigate the gliders. GENIoS uses high-resolution forecast models of wind and ocean currents, along with information from the glider itself, to calculate the optimal path for the gliders. This will improve the quality of the scientific data collected.

GENIoS is a collaboration among Edwards, Fumin Zhang from the Georgia Institute of Technology and their two Georgia Tech Ph.D. students, Dongsik Chang and Sungjin Cho. GENIos has been tested for more than 210 glider-days on the continental shelf off Georgia and South Carolina. This experiment will be its first test in the Gulf of Mexico.

Edwards also hopes to use this project to test the gliders as platforms for new, experimental sensors developed by other members of the ECOGIG-2 team.

Others involved in ECOGIG-2 include UGA marine sciences faculty Christof Meile, Renato Castelao and Catherine Edwards as well as Annalisa Bracco and Joe Montoya of Georgia Tech.

For additional information, contact Catherine Edwards at (912) 598-2471 or catherine.edwards@skio.uga.edu.

Skidaway open house 92 percent ‘landfill-free’

October 30, 2013

 The effort to make Skidaway Marine Science Day a ‘landfill-free’ event was largely successful, according to event organizers. Held on the campus of the University of Georgia (UGA) Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, the annual open house attracted nearly 2,000 visitors on Saturday, Oct. 26, but generated only nine pounds of unrecyclable trash. The event organizers used recycling and composting bins to collect and recycle materials in an attempt to reduce the stream of trash ultimately headed to a landfill.

 The event was sponsored by the UGA Skidaway Institute, the UGA Aquarium and UGA Shellfish Laboratory, which are both part of Marine Extension, a public service and outreach unit of UGA, and by Gray’s Reef National Marine Sanctuary and the Nature Conservancy.

 When the event was over, 57 pounds of recyclable paper, mostly napkins and hot dog wrappers, and 35 pounds of cans and plastic were collected. The compost containers held 10 pounds of food waste.

 “One lesson we learned is that chip bags are not recyclable, and we collected one and a half pounds of them,” said  Amanda Wrona Meadows,  a marine scientist with The Nature Conservancy and one of one of the event organizers. “That’s a 50-gallon trash bag of chip bags.”

 The rest of the non-recyclable waste was composed of material such as duct tape, pipe cleaners, cigarette butts, garbage bags and diapers.

 “About 92 percent of the waste generated at the event was kept out of the landfill,” said Meadows. “I think that is something we should all feel good about.”

Invasive species program at Skidaway Institute

July 29, 2013

Microsoft Word - byers2_2013.docx

Field stations and marine labs join forces to tackle national environmental challenges

March 20, 2013

A world threatened by extreme weather, invasive species, emerging disease and increasing uncertainty needs the scientific capacity to face those challenges. Natural laboratories around the country, which have been placing researchers on the front lines of understanding and managing environmental change for a century, form the building blocks of that capacity. The Organization of Biological Field Stations and The National Association of Marine Laboratories has released a report showing how scientists in communities across the continent respond to emerging questions in flexible and nimble ways, and are poised to work together to contribute to global solutions.

James Sanders

James Sanders

The report was supervised by a steering committee of seven scientists, including Skidaway Institute of Oceanography director James Sanders. Also, Skidaway Institute scientist Jens Nejstgaard participated in the workshop that contributed to the report.

Field stations and marine labs (FSMLs) are the primary places scientists go to study environmental processes in their natural context, and as such they harbor the knowledge of the past that we need to predict the future. They host thousands of individual researchers at hundreds of locations, and are the birthplace of many of the innovations and discoveries that drive environmental science today. Recent large-scale initiatives, such as the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), as well as the longer-running Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER)

network, depend on existing FSML infrastructure. The novel insights these new observatories generate

Jens Nejstgaard

Jens Nejstgaard

will stimulate complementary research at many more field stations and marine labs.

However, only a small fraction of FSMLs participates in these broader-scale scientific initiatives. NEON and LTER represent ten per cent of the available long-term, place-based, multiple-investigator environmental research sites. The report, “Field Stations and Marine Laboratories of the Future: A Strategic Vision,” is based on a national workshop and survey and on input from the broader scientific community. The report recommends creating a Network Center to catalyze broader-scale science and to facilitate participation in coordinated environmental efforts. For example, a stronger network of FSMLs could contribute to evolving national and international programs such as the sustained National Climate Assessment or the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network.

Field stations and marine labs have the flexibility and the logistical and intellectual capacity to support novel experimental approaches across tremendous ecological diversity. Collectively, they represent billions of dollars of investment in research infrastructure, including and tools, and they have trained generations of environmental scientists.

This report is a first step in making sure the nation’s investment in field stations and marine labs continues to meet the dynamic and changing needs of scientists, students and the public they serve.

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The National Association of Marine Laboratories (NAML), organized in the late 1980’s, is a nonprofit organization of over 120 members employing more than 10,000 scientists, engineers, and professionals and representing marine and Great Lakes laboratories stretching from Guam to Bermuda and Alaska to Puerto Rico. The member institutions of the National Association of Marine Labs work together to improve the quality and effectiveness of ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research, education and outreach. Through these unique national and regional networks, NAML encourages ecosystem-based management, wise local land management and the understanding and protection of natural resources.

 

The Organization of Biological Field Stations (OBFS) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit that represents field stations throughout the world. The mission of OBFS is to help member stations increase their effectiveness in supporting critical research, education, and outreach programs. OBFS pursues this goal in a manner that maximizes diversity, inclusiveness, sustainability, and transparency.

 

Skidaway Institute scientists seek answers to salt marsh questions

January 2, 2013

Salt marshes are a vital part of the coastal ecosystem. They provide a nursery for many kinds of marine animal life. Sitting in the transition zone between the ocean and the land, salt marshes serve as a physical buffer against severe weather. They act as a chemical buffer by capturing, holding and releasing nutrients that are brought in on each tide. As a result, the marshes have a great influence on the type and amount of nutrients that enter the sounds and the ocean. That buffering capacity varies on tidal, daily and seasonal time scales, but how it functions is poorly documented.

A team of Skidaway Institute of Oceanography scientists have begun a project to get a clearer picture of how salt marshes function and interact with their surrounding environment.

The composition of the science team reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the project. Principal investigator Jay Brandes, Aron Stubbins and Bill Savidge are chemical oceanographers, and Catherine Edwards is a physical oceanographer. Geologist Clark Alexander and physical oceanographers Jack Blanton and Dana Savidge are also contributing to the effort. The three-year project is funded by a $699, 971 grant from the National Science Foundation.

The research team at Groves Creek (l-r) Clark Alexander, Jack Blanton, Catherine Edwards, Jay Brandes, Dana Savidge, Bill Savidge, Aron Stubbins

The research team at Groves Creek (l-r) Clark Alexander, Jack Blanton, Catherine Edwards, Jay Brandes, Dana Savidge, Bill Savidge, Aron Stubbins

“Scientists have looked at salt marshes in the past and have gotten some good data,” Brandes said. “However, this will be the first detailed look at the combined functions of one of these marsh systems.”

The project will focus on Groves Creek, a portion of coastal salt marsh along the Wilmington River, adjacent to the Skidaway Institute campus. Groves Creek has been the site of other research projects.  Over the past three years, Blanton, Alexander, Dana Savidge and others have studied the topography and water-flow in the marsh as part of a Department of Energy-funded project.  Because of this, the physical layout of the marsh has been documented to a fine detail.

“We already know a lot about this area, especially how the water moves in and out of the marsh on the tides,” said Brandes. “We have a very good understanding of the topography of the top of the marsh and its tidal creeks, both above and below the surface.”

The scientists also believe the Groves Creek area is fairly representative of salt marshes along the Georgia and South Carolina coasts.

From a chemical standpoint, the research will focus on way the salt marsh uses carbon: is it a consumer or producer of carbon-based organic material and nutrients?

“Marshes take material in from the river on every high tide, and they deliver material back to the river on the falling tide — but it isn’t the same stuff,” Savidge said. “The marsh changes the river chemistry on every tidal cycle.”

There isn’t much consensus on what controls that exchange between river and marsh. “That is one of the big questions,” said Brandes, “Trying to understand whether the marsh is a producer or consumer, and how that changes over time, the seasons, the tides and so on.”

To get a detailed history of marsh-river exchange, the scientists will place sensors in the marsh that will measure various conditions every 15 minutes. Remote sensors cannot measure everything, so the research team will also be collecting samples on a daily basis and returning them to their labs for analysis.  Understanding the big picture will come from adding up all the little incremental changes over time and relating them to the actions of sun, tide and weather on the marsh surface.

Stubbins will focus his efforts on the role of dissolved organic carbon in the marsh. Savidge will work look at how the salt marsh uses dissolved oxygen. Edwards will be modeling how water flows in and out of the system and how that movement interacts with the chemical and biological activity.

When the project is complete in three years, the Skidaway scientists expect to have a much more extensive picture of the role salt marshes play in the larger coastal ecosystem.

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